ICOM 24th General Conference and ICDAD Annual Conference 2016, Milan (Italy)

3 years ago

The 2016 ICOM / ICDAD Annual Meeting was organized within the framework of the ICOM 24th GENERAL CONFERENCE in Milan (Italy), from 3rd to 9th July 2016.

Every three years ICOM's General Conference gathers the international museum community. Experts and museum professionals from all around the world meet for a whole week to exchange ideas about museum-related topics, encompassing scientific discussions as well as conversations on current pressing issues in the museum and heritage sphere. A stimulating program of lectures and keynote speeches, a museum exhibition, and several social events was provided. Taking part in the international working groups and cultural experiences on offer, presented both opportunities and challenges to strengthen the relationships within the professional museum community. The conference theme was:

Museums and Cultural Landscapes

Programme

ICOM MILANO 3rd - 9th July 2016

ICDAD Annual Conference 2016

Cultural Landscapes – from arts and crafts to decorative arts and design

Joined Session of GLASS and ICDAD

Cooperation and sharing in the decorative arts

All lectures and General Assembly at MiCo, Milano Congress Center

Sunday, 3 July 2016

  Advisory Committee Meeting (ICOM); Meeting of NC's and IC's (chairs)

Monday, 4 July 2016

09.30 - 13.00 Opening Ceremony, Keynote Speeches, see ICOM General Program
13.00 - 14.00 Lunch break
14.00 - 15.45 ICDAD board meeting
(suite 6 South Wing - Level +2M)
15.45 - 16.15 Coffee break
16.15 - 18.30 ICDAD General Assembly
(suite 6 South Wing - Level +2M)
Evening Social event: Opening Party at Castello Sforzesco

Tuesday, 5 July 2016

09.00 - 10.00 Keynote speeches, see ICOM General Program / website
10.30 - 11.00 Coffee break
11.00 - 13.00 Joint Session ICDAD with ICOM GLASS
(Turquoise 1 North Wing - Level -1)
      11.00 Danielle CALUWÉ, Free University of Brussels, Dept. of Archaeology and Art History (SKAR), Belgium,
Annemie DE VOS, Vleeshuismuseum/MAS, Antwerp, Belgium:
Reflections on glass. The historical and archeological glass collection of the Antwerp Museum aan de Stroom/collective Vleeshuis, Antwerp (Belgium)
      11.20 Dr. Helena KOENIGSMARKOVÁ, Director, UPM Prague, Czech Republic:
Light and Glass Society - Research and Cooperation on the History of Glass Chandeliers
      11.40 Dr. Rosita NENNO, Senior Curator, German Leather Museum Offenbach:
Sebastian Herkner - Glasswork. Contemporary Design and traditional craftsmanship: sharing the experience
      12.00 Regina Lara SILVEIRA MELLO, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo, Brazil and VICARTE_FCT/UNL Lisbon, Portugal,
Paulo Eduardo BARBOSA, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo, Brazil:
Gomide's stained glass windows installed at Parque da Água Branca's Entrance Portal
      12.20 Dr. Nirit SHALEV-KHALIFA, Curator manager of the Visual Documentation and Exhibition department, Yad Ben-Zvi institute, Jerusalem; curator of Independence Hall, Eretz Israel museum Tel Aviv, independent curator:
The Museum and the Arts and Crafts Workshops: Interaction and Renewal of Local Tradition in the Local Landscape
      12.40 Dr. Reino LIEFKES, Senior Curator in charge of the Ceramics and Glass Collection, V&A Museum, London, UK; Chairman of ICOM Glass:
The Triumph of Amphitrite: a story of resurrection through creative partnerships
13.00 - 14.00 Lunch break
14.30 - 18.30 ICDAD Session 1
(Suite 2 South Wing - Level +2)
      14.30 Keynote speaker:
Dr. James M. Bradburne, General Director of Pinacoteca di Brera and Biblioteca nazionale Braidense, Milano, Italy:
A birds-eye view: management landscapes from arts and crafts to design to fine arts
The presentation looks at the changing landscape of cultural management as it meets the challenges of changing institutional boundaries, changing cultural practices and changing technologies.
      15.10 Mag. Martina PALL, Director, Schell Collection, Graz Austria:
The Embriacchi Workshop
      15.30 Dr. Rosita NENNO, Senior Curator, German Leather Museum Offenbach:
Temptation and Fall. Figurative gilded decoration on leather caskets. Focus on a North Italian writing desk in the collections of the German Leather Museum
      15.50 Martina LEHMANNOVÁ, Curator, The Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague, Czech Republic:
Because of Tuberculosis - History and contemporary situation in production of tapestries and gobelins in Czech Republic
      16.10 Elena TITOVA PhD, Director, All-Russian Museum of Decorative Art:
The Handicrafts Museums and its role in the shaping of Russian cultural landscape at the turn of XIX-XX centuries
16.30 - 17.00 Coffee break
      17.00 Melissa RINNE, Research Fellow, International Engagement Liaison, Kyoto National Museum, Japan:
Summer Kimono Born in the Snow: The Changing Landscape of Echigo Jōfu
      17.20 Meiko NAGASHIMA, Curator of Lacquer, Department of Decorative and Applied Arts, Kyoto National Museum, Japan:
The Birth of the Ubiquitous Landscape in Japanese Lacquers
      17.40 Golnaz Tayeebeh GOLSABAHI, in charge of painting collection in Collections Department of Cultural Institute of Bonyad Museums (CIBM) Tehran. Iran:
Artistic and cultural landscape within an economic opportunity: A brief view to Iranian decorative art verity
      18.00 Prof. Alberto ROVETTA, Prof. Edoardo ROVIDA, Prof. Gabriele GUIDI, Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Meccanica:
Protection of landscapes in dynamic networks with visitors at the Center of Museums - Proposal for the upgrading of museums utilization and realization
      18.20 Discussion
20.00 - 24.00 Open Night - Science Museum

Wednesday, 6 July 2016

09.00 - 11.00 General meeting ICOM new visual identity
11.00 - 11.30 Coffee break
11.30 - 13.00 ICDAD Session 2
(suite 6 South Wing - Level +2M)
      11.30 Allison-Faith CALLENDER, Curator Art, Barbados Museum and Historical Society, Barbados St. Michael, Barbados:
Exchange Museum - the new face on Bridgetowns' Cultural landscape
      11.50 Irina KOSHORIDZE PhD, Director, Georgian State Museum of Folk and Applied Arts, Tbilisi, Georgia:
From Craftsman to the Designers-History of the Decorative Arts Museum in Georgia
      12.10 Sofia BOLLO PhD Student, University of Zurich, URPP Asia and Europe:
Reframing Ancient Skills in Present Chinese Cultural Museum Landscapes
      12.30 Fatima FAROOQ B.PD:
AN ORDINARY EXTRAORDINARE (A case study on Wazir Khan Mosque)
      12.50 Discussion
13.00 - 14.00 Lunch break
14.00 - 15.45 ICDAD Session 3
(suite 6 South Wing - Level +2M)
      14.00 Dr. Christian HÖRACK, Museé d'art et d'histoire, Neuchâtel, Switzerland:
Shopping bags transform our urbanized landscapes since the early sixties of the 20th century
      14.20 Damon MONZAVI, Gemstone museums of Daryay-e-Nour,
Reza DABIRINEZHAD, Malek national library and museum:
Radio museum, a wing toward cultural landscapes
      14.40 Mag. Julia KÖNIG MsC, Vienna City Library, Poster Collection, Austria:
Posters and Cityscape. The Poster Collection at Vienna City Library
      15.00 Annamaria RAVAGNAN, Regione Lombardia - Directorate General Culture - Istituti e Luoghi della Cultura e Soprintendenza Beni Librari:
House-Museum "Three Roofs": a surprising multi-sensorial balcony in Lombard landscape
      15.20 Final Discussion. Informations from the Board
15.45 - 16.15 Coffee break
17.00 - 19.00 Visit of Bagatti-Valsecchi Museum with Aperitivo
20.00 - 22.00 Social event: Free concert at the Duomo

Thursday, 7 July 2016

  Off site visits
10.00 - 11.00 Villa Necchi Campiglio
12.00 - 13.30 Fondazione Prada
13.30 - 14.30 Lunch break
14.30 - 16.00 free visits without guide at Castello Sforzesco: Museo dei Mobile e delle Sculture Lignee / Museo delle Arti Decorative
16.30 - 18.30 Triennale
19.00 - 20.00 Fondazione Achille Castiglione
Evening ICDAD Farewell Dinner

Friday, 8 July 2016

  ICOM Excursion day - final choice see ICOM General Program / website

Saturday, 9 July 2016

09.00 - 13.00 ICOM General Assembly with Closing Ceremony, see ICOM General Program
Evening Social event: Closing Party for 500/800 participants at La Triennale

Abstracts

ICDAD - Abstracts in alphabetical order

Reframing Ancient Skills in Present Chinese Cultural Museum Landscapes

Sofia BOLLO
PhD Student, University of Zurich, URPP Asia and Europe, Zurich, Switzerland

The human activity of making, collecting and displaying objects has a very long history across the globe. Exceptionally, Chinese Neolithic pottery has a uniquely short biography, since the first Neolithic site in China was only found at the beginning of the twentieth century. Today early Chinese objects are widely and constantly excavated throughout China, providing an ever-expanding archaeological database that requires systematic organization. Prehistoric pottery, which does not carry enough historiographical information, is particularly subject to specific problems of classification, periodization and explanation, and thus leaves more space to various forms of interpretation and visual representation, which inevitably change over time. In the recent decades Chinese Neolithic pottery has been appropriated in different ways and through different modalities. It is now permanently exhibited in public galleries in many museums around the world and is even chosen for contemporary art installations. As these objects are extensively displayed to a global audience, they unfold accounts about Chinese civilization, about its past and its present.

With an emphasis on the material mediatory role of objects on display, this paper seeks to investigate the role of Chinese Neolithic pottery in the present through a multi-sample and multi-perspective comparative approach. A threefold analytical structure will guide the research: I will include curators' interviews, object displays, together with visitors' questionnaires. Looking at different museums exhibitions, I engage with the evolution of the Neolithic pottery as a constructed object in museums. The comparison will show how Chinese Neolithic pottery is moving from being considered simply archaeological material culture to being appreciated for its design and aesthetic qualities. There is a clear shift in the revaluation of pottery craftsmanship and technological skills, whose endurance is now celebrated as outstanding autochthonous element of the continuous Chinese civilization, and whose power overarches past and present in anthropological, cultural and social meanings. I will be arguing that Neolithic pottery has been recently taken as an icon of Chinese prehistoric past, in the context of unprecedented boom of museums in China, within the contemporary cultural landscape.

A birds-eye view: management landscapes from arts and crafts to design to fine arts

Dr. James M. BRADBURNE
General Director of Pinacoteca di Brera and Biblioteca nazionale Braidense, Milano, Italy

The presentation looks at the changing landscape of cultural management as it meets the challenges of changing institutional boundaries, changing cultural practices and changing technologies. A birds-eye view: management landscapes from arts and crafts to design to the fine arts.

Exchange Museum - the new face on Bridgetowns' Cultural landscape

Allison-Faith CALLENDER
Curator Art, Barbados Museum and Historical Society, Barbados St. Michael, Barbados

The theme "Museums and Cultural Landscapes" is a very exciting one for Barbados, as we will be celebrating our 50th Anniversary of Independence in November this year. Several of our museums are strategically placed to enhance the cultural landscape of our island.

As a nation we have lots to be proud of and one of those is our heritage institutions, and the many museums which have been created within the last ten years. This year, the "Exchange" museum will be opened. It is a museum right in the heart of Bridgetown in one of the busy shopping streets frequented mainly by locals and constructed in a historic Masonic building which pays attention to the architectural, educational and institutional history within the wider story of Bridgetown as a port city in a globalized world.

This museum encompasses two of three floors within the space and the complex will allow visitors to understand the role of commerce, banking and currency in economic development and its impact on socio-economic development of the island. The space will be a dynamic and interactive space that will weave the story of trade and development in explaining and exploring globalization and its many currencies including coin, cowries and sugar.

Shopping bags transform our urbanized landscapes since the early sixties of the 20th century

Dr. Christian HÖRACK
Museé d'art et d'histoire, Neuchâtel, Switzerland

In parallel to the development of self-service supermarkets and shopping malls and mass production of goods the production of shopping bags becomes a mass phenomena as well. We are observing nowadays the end of this amazingly productive, creative but also very polluting period. New and more solid bags for long-term use are re-invented, less polluting materials are developed and classical shopping bags finally tend to be forbidden in more and more countries. Focusing on Switzerland we analyze their graphic strategies between pure advertisement and more sophisticated approaches like bags designed by artists. We try to solve the problem of collecting, exhibiting and preserving a representative amount of these ephemeral objects, usually made for a single use only.

Radio museum, a wing toward cultural landscapes

Damon MONZAVI
Gemstone museums of Daryay-e-Nour
Reza DABIRINEZHAD
Malek national library and museum

Museum professionals are trying to bring up the museum as one of the most important options in education, culture and art. Museums should be able to permanently retain audience meanwhile keeping the relationship with them. They want become centers of interpretation of the places and the communities they belong to or the cultural landscape which objects are related with them. To achieve this objective, the easiest and most effective way is virtual network.

Museums are trying to use stories for making connections, the stories that are inside the museums and many people do not know about them. But what is the way, for telling the stories that remain not only inside museums but also can travel outside the museum. The stories can give life to object and let the audience fill the cultural landscape related to the objects also. But the important matter is that is it possible the impact act and remain before, during and after museum visit? Is it possible to have the same impact for non-visitors outside the museum?

In this article a new way for making connection with audience which recently develop by Iranian museum professionals will introduce. Radio museum wants to connects with people who once visit the museums and even non visitors to build affinity and draw them in deeper to connect them with collections and mission of the museums which will build retention and loyalty.

One of the unique characteristics of radio is the high speed of production and broadcasting which with limited facilities the best performance in the shortest time van be produced. Therefore, radio message transfer is much faster and more deliberate, less costly and more effective. Speakers, music and sounds have more and deeper impact on the audience. Maybe objects information is not attractive, maybe some people cannot read them because of many reasons (crowd e.g) and when they read it, they imagine and interpret the scene or cultural landscape. Radio with pitch of sounds, effects, music and other facilities absorb the attention of the listener senses and leads him or her to many new realms and imagination even cultural landscape which the object is related to it. Radio is capable to travel all around the world, even the most remote areas to spread its influence and also with the benefit of virtual network and mobile applications can have long-term durability in mobile devices and computers. Due to the massive expansion of radio and influence in people's minds.

We can conclude that this phenomenon can influence on imagination, mood and people thought and show them different roads. If imagination guided toward concepts of museum, the result could be the creativity which flourish hidden talents. Radio messages could be laying the groundwork for many interpretations. Radio can influence the depth of penetration. As much audience who receive the radio message, there are interoperation and imagination for each message.

AN ORDINARY EXTRAORDINARE (A case study on Wazir Khan Mosque)

Fatima FAROOQ

Despite the unparalleled aesthetics used in The Wazir khan mosque (a mosque built in the Mughal era in the year 1642 - located in Lahore, Pakistan), little is being done to preserve this centuries old marvel. The facades and interior, that are adorned with design and decorative elements, such as frescoes, intricate tile work, gazeboes carved in wood and arabesques, are dissipating with every passing moment. My research recovers a local perspective through qualitative interviews with 25 craftsmen living in Lahore, Chinniot and Multan. The analysis of these interviews exhibit that

  1. Damage due to environmental factors is prevalent;
  2. Frescoes are chipping of, as they were done on dry plaster, which requires immediate repairs;
  3. Extensive damage has been done to the traditional tile work that punctuates the bricks. This study is part of a growing body of research that I'm doing on Wazir khan mosque and the immediate efforts that are needed to preserve it. This project will contribute to future research and conservation of similar Pakistani historic structures and monuments.

Artistic and cultural landscape within an economic opportunity: A brief view to Iranian decorative art verity

Golnaz Tayeebeh GOLSABAHI
In charge of painting collection in Collections Department of Cultural Institute of Bonyad Museums (CIBM) Tehran, Iran

Iran is a vast country with various tribes. This variety consists of climate, geography, natural landscape or landscape which created by its inhabitants. Diversity of customs, traditions, dialects, diversity of presenting arts or decorative arts in this country and diversity of lifestyles, architecture, agriculture and dressing, all and all have formed a context in which, artistic, natural, historical and cultural tangible and intangible legacy has been found through history, and in many cases created fascinating diversities which effected on many aspects of life of people. Artistic and decorative arts were considered as supporting activity in non-civic societies in Iran during 1960s and 70s. Artifacts as the most outstanding Iranian decorative art and an independent and native industry provide, on the average % 10 of foreign income yearly in Iran. In this brief essay, after presenting these industries and Iranian decorative arts, I will study interactions of Iranian museums to transcend artistic, cultural and economic landscape which caused by this kind of arts. Even though this study is very short to introduce the multiplicities of these arts in Iran, but presents a panorama of high potentialities of decorative arts in this country and reminds us how many artists and artesian spent their life to propagate art during long decades, and how artists and artisans, by contribution of museums and collections and a new approach to artifacts and decorative arts, will able to revive an artistic and cultural landscape in term of an economic opportunity.

Posters and Cityscape. The Poster Collection at Vienna City Library

Mag. Julia KÖNIG MsC
Vienna City Library, Poster Collection, Austria

Posters are essential objects in cityscapes. Advertising or announcing, colourful and bright or in black and white, telling about the newest play at a theatre, movies at the cinemas, stars at the opera houses, about drinking Pepsi or Coca-Cola or about political ideas -communication is poster's prime objective. Fixed on billboards they getting part of cityscape. They are designed objects made to evoke an inner image. The lecture will present ideas about posters as part of cityscape and introduce the poster collection belonging to the Vienna City Library.

The Vienna City Library is one of the most important scholarly libraries with a special focus on Vienna. Beside the Printed Works (roughly 550,000 volumes), there are more than 1100 literary bequests with around 6 million individual autographs in the Manuscript Department, almost 100,000 items in the Music Department ranging from original scores to sheet music and an extensive documentation in the form of newspaper clippings and historical photographs.

The Poster Collection holds about 350,000 posters and -as an archive of the cityscape of Vienna- provides the possibility to interpret aspects of the city's history and culture as a major source. As been mentioned above there are posters at election campaigns and cultural events, as well as product advertising, which shows everyday culture as for example the fashion, common ideas of how a family should look like, food preparation and preferred leisure entertainment.

From Craftsman to the Designers-History of the Decorative Arts Museum in Georgia

Irina KOSHORIDZE PhD
Director, Georgian State Museum of Folk and Applied Arts, Tbilisi, Georgia

The paper will focus on the history of the establishment of the Museum of Decorative art of Georgia is going back to 19th century and is connected with the Decree of Russian Empires which established in 1899 The Caucasian Kustar (craftsman) Comity with headquarter in Tiflis (modern Tbilisi). The aim of that organization was study, support and develop the folk and applied arts in that era, the Russian Empire was systematically taking part to the international exhibitions, and was trying to represent rich cultural traditions of the diverse and various constituent nations of Caucasus. The Caucasian Kustar Committee was investigating the potential for the Caucasus to become an exporter of handmade objects, and to represent high quality, competitive and unique items.

The directions of the Comity activities changed in 1900 -is and it was connected with the new person Julius Straume- painter who was graduated from the one of the major decorative art institutions in Saint Petersburg -School of Baron Shtiglitz. Straume was familiar and follower of the ideas of the movement of "Arts and Crafts" which was established in 1870 is in UK by William Morris and John Raskin. The activities of Straume in the comity changed the direction of the organization and from those times the designers started actively collaborate with the Comity. Later, in 1913 based on those new ideas and the collections already existed in the storages of the Caucasian Kustar Comity, the Museum of handicrafts was established and Julius Straume became the first director of the Museum.

As conclusion we can say that the early history of the Museum, was connected with the contemporary artistic trends - one of the most important art movement "Arts and Crafts", which changed the directions of the activities from the study, development and support of traditional crafts till involvement of the professional artists and designers, who created the new compositions, objects and artifacts based on the traditional local Caucasian and later Georgian motives.

Because of Tuberculosis. History and contemporary situation in production of tapestries and gobelins in Czech Republic

Martina LEHMANNOVÁ
Curator, The Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague, Czech Republic

Until the end of 19th century there had never been production of tapestries or gobelins in the area of Czech Republic. Rudolf Schlattauer (1860-1915), one of the pupils of the painter Hans Makart, started to suffer from tuberculosis. He moved to Norway to heal from this disease and by the way got know the gobelin technique. In 1899 he founded the first gobelin workshop in Zašová and soon moved to Valašské Meziříčí in east Moravia.

The work became very popular. In 1910 designer Marie Teinitzerova (1879-1960) decided to found gobelin workshop in Jindřichův Hradec in south Bohemia. Both workshops changed into schools. After 1948 they were nationalised and incorporated in national enterprise Art crafts. Many tapestries were produced, mainly for the decorations of national enterprises headquarters. After the end of communist era they split in two firms again. Moravian Gobelin Manufactory in Valašské Meziříčí produces new tapestries and conserves old tapestries. Tapestries Atelier in Jindřichův Hradec focuses mainly in conservation.

Both Valašské Meziříčíand Jindřichův Hradec have been, thank the tapestry/gobelin production, centres of cultural development in its regions and it have had also great economic consequences. Since the beginning the smallest number of employees was around 10 people and in the time of the greatest prestige of tapestries it gave work to more than 60 people in each city. For both cities, who are near borders of the republic, it has ever been important employer.

The Birth of the Ubiquitous Landscape in Japanese Lacquers

Meiko NAGASHIMA
Curator of Lacquer, Department of Decorative and Applied Arts, Kyoto National Museum, Japan

Some of the most lavish examples of Japanese lacquer are those decorated with the technique of maki-e, whose pictorial designs are made with gold and silver flakes sprinkled into the sap of the lacquer tree (Toxicodendron vernicifluum). Because of their precious materials and sophisticated production processes, maki-e lacquers were historically owned only by the wealthiest echelons of Japanese society.

After the Age of Discovery, these exotic and high quality wooden objects began to be acquired by not only the Japanese elite but also by wealthy European merchants, nobles, and royalty. The designs portrayed on the numerous works of lacquerware exported to the West, together with ceramics and textiles from various Eastern regions, contributed to the development of a particular image of "the East" among Westerners of the day. The vogue for anything Eastern led to an increased demand for works with decorations matching the European image of the East, especially landscapes depicting waterside pavilions with pointed roofs, mountains, pine or willow trees, vines, flowers, and birds.

We might expect such ubiquitous yet non-existent landscapes to have always been found on Japanese maki-e lacquers. In early Japan, however, artistic landscapes were rarely generic. The wealthy elite lived in exclusive, closed social circles that shared a unique, sophisticated culture. Their landscape motifs contained hidden meanings that were understood only by the cultured few-allusions to famous stories, well-known poetry, historical incidents, or combinations of famous views suggestive of such stories and poems. Designs of landscapes thus functioned almost like secret symbols that evoked this shared literary knowledge.

On the other hand, Japanese social structures were changing in the latter part of the 16th century, at the same time that Western merchants reached Japanese maki-e workshops. The newly arisen power of the warrior (samurai) class and the development of mercantile culture in cities had an unmistakable influence on the production of maki-e. Such social changes helped give birth to purely decorative designs which had only vague references to literature, if any at all. Nevertheless, early lacquers for domestic use never bore the kinds of ubiquitous, generic landscapes with waterside pavilions found on export pieces, probably because there was simply no demand for such within Japan.

To meet the Westerners' demand for landscapes with waterside pavilions and mountains, maki-e artists seem to have borrowed most heavily from designs of the "Eight Views of Ōmi"-selected scenic spots around the large body of water today called Lake Biwa. The Eight Views of Ōmi, in turn, were created after the Chinese prototype "Eight Views of Xiao and Xiang"-eight beautiful and poetic scenes around a lake in China where the Xiao and Xiang Rivers meet, which were meant to evoke sentimental feelings. Little by little, the specific iconography associated with each of these famous Ōmi views disintegrated, and pseudo-views of Ōmi became convenient models for the generic Chinoiserie-type landscapes used in works for export. Although there were certainly other factors -such as the diffusion of printed books, for example- the Western demand for Japanese lacquers likely played a significant role in the initial development of such imaginary "oriental landscapes."

Beginning around the 17th century, these generic landscapes began appearing on domestic maki-e lacquers as well (although in some cases, the knowledge needed to understand hidden iconography in such landscapes may simply be lost to contemporary Japanese viewers).

In this way, the imaginary, ubiquitous landscapes that came to symbolize the East in general were actually developed out of the production of maki-e lacquer designs influenced by East-West cultural exchange. Subsequently, such landscapes became part of Japanese domestic culture, but of course without the same "oriental" symbolism. We know of such cross-cultural movements in artistic landscapes only through the precious artworks that have survived the centuries and remain with us today, preserved around the world in collections with diverse provenances.

Temptation and Fall. Figurative gilded decoration on leather caskets. Focus on a north Italian writing desk in the collections of the German Leather Museum

Dr. Rosita NENNO
Senior Curator, DLM Deutsches Ledermuseum Offenbach, Germany

Under oriental influence, bookbinders took over the leading position in leatherwork during the 16th Century. Gilded decorations with abstract or floral motifs became popular. In the Netherlands, small figurative scenes depicting hunting and weddings build up a special group. But nothing is more surprising than a number of north Italian caskets with large scale figurative narrations from the old and new testament or with mythological topics. Their iconography is comparable to sculpture, painting or print of that time, but the technique, combining gilding, inlay and painting, makes proof of the highest standard of leathercraft. The writing desk of the German Leather Museum might be the masterpiece of the group.

The Embriacchi Workshop

Mag. Martina PALL
Director, Schell Collection, Graz, Austria

Embriacchi caskets are very typical for the North Italy. They are limited to a specific area and are characteristic objects that give testimony to superb craftsmanship.

These types of intarsia techniques and bone carving can be found in many museums and are referred to using the name of the "inventor" Baldassare degli Embriacchi - in short, Embriacchi-caskets.

The attempt to categorise this large quantity of caskets has focused in recent years primarily on the objects carved from bone. Those caskets that only display intarsia have been excluded from classification up to this time.

Frequently, these caskets are rectangular and more seldom hexagon or octagonal and seem to have served as bridal gifts or toiletry cases. The eye catching, in perspective inlaid pattern (Certosina patter) can also be found on the frames of mirrors, combs made of bone, home altars and other objects.

The wealth of objects in museums, curiosity cabinets and private collections shows that Baldassare degli Embriacchi serves the credit for creating art-historical objects, probably made and sold on an industrial scale, into commodities for half of Europe.

House-Museum "Three Roofs": a surprising multi-sensorial balcony in Lombard landscape

Annamaria RAVAGNAN
Regione Lombardia - Directorate General Culture - Istituti e Luoghi della Cultura e Soprintendenza Beni Librari. D.G. Culture, Identità e Autonomie - U.O. Valorizzazione culturale. Struttura Istituti e Luoghi della Cultura e Soprintendenza Beni Librari Piazza Città di Lombardia, Milano, Italy

On the Brianza Hills, in Sirtori (LC), a village inside Montevecchia Park, a house-museum named "The Three Roofs", was opened to the public in early 2015. The museum combines natural scenery with an exemplary cultural, intellectual and imaginary landscape. The House, its park and masterpieces were all made by Giorgio Riva, architect, painter and sculptor who, in particular, he is the author of "light sculptures". Edi Minguzzi (University of Milan professor), who actively participated in the philological system, in her introduction essay called this work the "House of the Muses", because the inspiration is really the convergence of the arts in an articulated and, at the same time, unitary aesthetic experience. In fact, landscape art, light art, architecture, sculpture, painting and design are interconnected without boundaries with poetry and music, all supported by a major theoretical study.

The museum - which includes a well-equipped laboratory of video-acoustic - opens at sunset, when "light sculptures" are lighted up. Through the sculptures the artist "cut out" the night landscape. Voices and sounds (for example verses of Dante, Homer, etc.) participate in this museum and become part of the performance. The linguistic keys are many, but the essential component of this cultural landscape is the multisensory which stimulates all the perceptual apparatus of visitors.

Concerts and video-acoustic-projections usually vivify the evenings, especially inside the "Green Cochlea Little Theatre". With refer to Siena Chart this house-museum, sustained by the Museum System of the Province of Lecco, has promoted the creation of "landscapes communities", has recreated and interpreted landscapes that surround museums in Lecco Province and it involves general public, residents, tourists, families, as well as scholars such language philosophers, historians and mathematicians. Furthermore the Three Roof House-Museum is coordinated by the Museum System of the Province of Lecco, approved by Lombardy Region. This project shows how the continuous change of the cultural landscape make possible to gather the communities of one determined region and to involve them in a unique cultural process.

Summer Kimono Born in the Snow: The Changing Landscape of Echigo Jōfu

Melissa RINNE
Research Fellow, International Engagement Liaison, Kyoto National Museum, Japan

All the work of weaving crepe, from plying the ramie thread to bleaching the cloth, takes place in the snow. Were it not for the natural humidity of our life under the snow, it would be impossible to pull and twist the thread to the thinness -finer than a hair- that is necessary to weave the finest crepe. The fibers break if the air is too dry, and when the fibers break, the thread is weak and likely to snap. [...] The thread is spun and twisted in the snow, it is washed in snow waters and bleached on snow fields. There is crepe because there is snow. Echigo crepe owes its fame to the combined powers of man and snow, working hand in hand. In Uonuma County, we say that crepe is a child of the snow. Crepe is also produced in regions with little snow, it is true, but the thread is made differently, and it can't compare with the crepe of Echigo.

From the 1835 publication Hokuetsu seppu (Snow Country Tales), book 2, by Suzuki Bokushi (1770-1842). Translation adapted from Suzuki Bokushi, Snow Country Tales: Life in the Other Japan. Jeffery Hunter with Rose Lesser, trans. (Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1986) 62-63.

There are many different traditional crafts made in the colder reaches of northern Japan, but few are as closely associated with the natural landscape of their production region as the fine ramie kimono cloth known as Echigo jōfu, made in Minamiuonuma, Niigata prefecture. The sight of this delicate summer fabric bleaching in the sun over some of the deepest snow in Japan made such a strong impression on novelist Kawabata Yasunari that he took it up in his 1937 novel Snow Country, for which he later received the 1968 Nobel Prize in Literature.

This cloth, which has alternatively been called Echigo chijimi, or crepe, is named after Echigo province, the early geographic word for what is now called Niigata prefecture, and the word jōfu, meaning "fine cloth" made from bast fibers (long vegetable fibers, such as linen, hemp, or ramie). The history of bast fiber textile production in this region dates back centuries; ramie cloth from Echigo that was given to the government as tax payment in 731 is still preserved today in Nara's Shōsō-in treasury. Echigo was the probable production location of the fine ramie cloth used to make some of the outstanding summer kimono stored in museums today.

Echigo jōfu is distinguished by the use of super-fine hand-plied threads in both the weft and the warp, sometimes hand-bound ikat patterns, and handweaving on a distinctive semi-frame backstrap loom. Most spectacular to outsiders, however, is the finishing process: after a twelve meter long kimono length comes off the loom, it is washed and stretched out in the sun to bleach over the deep snows of late winter or early spring. Older kimonos can be refreshed by being dismantled, basted back into their original long lengths, and "sent back to their hometowns" for a re-bleaching on the snow.

In acknowledgment of its long history and significance as a living art form, Echigo jōfu was named an Intangible Important Cultural Property by the Japanese government in 1955. Despite the recognition and support that comes with such a designation, however, Echigo jōfu, like many other Japanese craft traditions today, is in danger of extinction amidst a diminishing market, a loss of skilled artisans, and other factors. Just as the world's natural and cultural landscapes are coming under increasing risk today from global warming and development, so too are we at danger of losing the intangible skills required to preserve some of our oldest craft traditions into the future.

Protection of landscapes in dynamic networks with visitors at the Center of Museums - Proposal for the upgrading of museums utilization and realization

Prof. Alberto ROVETTA, Prof. Edoardo ROVIDA, Prof. Gabriele GUIDI
Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Meccanica

The deep dimension of landscapes is defended by Museums reality and visitors can feel the being of cultural and natural heritage, when offered by emotions and knowledge by Museums. Use of networking and cultural heritage fruition is increased by new methodologies which involve human emotions. The participation of the visitor is a birth of new feelings and defense of old heritage of landscapes, and also increase tourism and love of landscape.

Intelligence of objects has become since few years the discipline that explains the internal reality of the things we use in daily life. Certainly it must be addressed also to the illustration of objects of Museums, and the best way to present them and to make them as a modern love must be found. Knowledge of objects takes out their intelligence, and now human knowledge has passed the external description of things and objects in general, to share the interior of things. Towards the near future for the objective of "connecting minds" and landscapes with museums and cultural richness are the instrument to reinforce the love for heritage of things and environments. The facts have been overwhelmed by the immediacy of communication, and the memories are generated in the cloud, social networks, and billions of people -not just the technology experts- use them spasmodically and in a valuable way. The paper describes the project "Dynamic Museums". The visitor expresses his / her interests through some characteristics, corresponding to the rational and to the emotional hemispheres of the human brain.

The curator of the museum evaluates the exposed objects in a similar manner. Through the interaction of the characteristics of the two above mentioned levels, the visitor can reach a personalized path. In addition, the curator can reach a feed-back useful for the redesign phase of the museum.

The Handicrafts Museums and its role in the shaping of Russian cultural landscape at the turn of XIX-XX centuries

Elena TITOVA PhD
Director, All-Russian Museum of Decorative Art

The All-Russian Museum of Decorative Art in the only museum in Russia focused on works of Russian applied art of XVIII-XX centuries. The collection was formed in 1999 through merging of the collections of the All-Russian Museum of Decorative-Applied and Folk Art, founded in 1981, and the Museum of Folk Arts n.a. Sergey Morozov (former Handicraft Museum, founded in 1885), as well as the library and archives of the Research Institute of art industry. In this report, we will focus on the Handicraft Museum as a unique multifunctional cultural institute, which had a significant formative influence on the artistic environment and cultural landscape of its time.

The Handicraft Museum opened its doors in the spring of 1885; in 2015 we celebrated the 130th anniversary of this event. The museum organized brilliant exhibitions of national art both in Russia and abroad, set a fashion for the "Russian style"; it was the center of attraction for the artists, craftsmen and artisans from many parts of the country, and for the general public interested in folk traditions and cultural values. In the first third of the XX century the Handicraft Museum did not only possess a wonderful, rich collection of decorative art and traditional handicrafts: it also was a unique creative laboratory for artists working in it. In this paper we are aiming to analyze the unique phenomenon in international museum practice, that was the Moscow Handicraft Museum, and to trace the main stages of its formation at the turn of XIX-XX centuries.

In the second half of the XIX century the interest towards folk art and culture was growing among the Russian intelligentsia; a new appreciation of traditional themes and subjects, folklore and handicrafts was emerging. In late XIX - early XX century, many Russian artists were collecting items of peasant art and creating works of their own inspired by the "Russian style".

These tendencies impelled the local governments and communities to pay closer attention to the state of handicrafts. In 1875, the Moscow provincial zemstvo assembly (the local self-government system) funded the research of current conditions of local craftsmen and artisans. The surveys provided a detailed material about the state of folk crafts, indicating the brewing crisis, and that immediate involvement and assistance was required. In May 1885 the Moscow provincial zemstvo assembly opened the Industrial and Commercial Museum of handicrafts. It was supposed to serve the purpose of promotion of handicrafts, as well as the best examples among the artisans and the improvement of production technology.

Renewal of the museum tool place in 1889 and is associated with the name of Sergei Timofeevich Morozova. Morozov, like Tretyakov (a Russian businessman, patron of art, collector, and philanthropist who gave his name to the Tretyakov Gallery) and Mamontov (a famous Russian industrialist, merchant, entrepreneur, and patron of the arts; founder of the Abramtsevo artistic colony), was one of the most prominent Russian philanthropists of his time. He was interested in folk decorative art (he had a vast handicraft collection), and was personally involved in the activities of the Moscow zemstvo. In 1889, Morozov presented a report to the commission of the Moscow zemstvo on ways to secure the well-being of crafts in the region and further develop the museum (which included organization of art classes and workshops for craftsmen). His proposals were approved. The museum became a leading center of handicrafts in the province: it induces further popularity of traditional crafts (which were now successfully sold), workshops and professional classes were organized for the local craftsmen.

New stage of museum's development was moving it out to a new building (the previous one was a shared facility). Morozov presented the museum a building in the very heart of Moscow (Leontievsky lane). The move took place in the autumn of 1903. Later, in 1910, the museum building was extended by adding the left wing, where a handicrafts store was located. By this time the Handicraft Museum has become a unique multifunctional center that combined workshops, storages, displays; it united cooperative craft societies and individual artists The museum provided the best high-quality raw materials, and sold the result of their work.

The museum's promotion of Russian handicrafts abroad is of particular interest. For instance, the Handicraft Museum participated in the formation of the Russian pavilion on the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900. Both works of professional artists, inspired by traditional Russian imagery, and folk handicrafts were presented there and received numerous awards.

By the years 1910-1913 the museum received handicrafts items from 26 provinces. Demand for Russian arts and crafts products within and without the country has increased significantly. This, in turn, led to the need to strengthen the artistic leadership and secure the overall quality of work. Thus in the autumn of 1907 Nikolai Bartram (an artist by training, fascinated by folk art) was invited to become an artistic director of the museum. Under his leadership, a new department was established in the museum, the so-called Museum of samples. The newly founded department was supposed to widen the range of samples created by professional artists for the craftsmen. It also collected the original antique pieces of Russian folk art.

At the beginning of the XX century, the major undertaking of the Moscow zemstvo and Morozov served as example to almost the entire country. Throughout the Russian Empire many regional zemstvos established storages and selling facilities for the local crafts. The aim of these establishments was in alignment with that of the Moscow Handicraft Museum: promotion of the products of local artisans, the search of new markets for them, participation in artistic and industrial exhibitions.

In the first years after the Revolution the museum's cultural importance has not shortened. The phenomenal success of this institution was determined by its complex organization. It was an organic compound of very different areas of activity: collecting and preserving, popularizing, creating, educating. The Moscow Handicrafts Museum was a unique multifunctional structure, unparalleled in the world museum practice.

We would like to remind contemporary audiences about this unique undertaking, try to analyze the results, describe the importance of the Handicrafts Museum's activities in the history of Russian culture. Our aim is to increase interest in the forgotten forms of the museum organization in order to find opportunities to use this experience in modern practice, and to support centers of arts and crafts.

GLASS/ICDAD Joint session "Cooperation and sharing in decorative arts"
Abstracts in alphabetical order

Reflections on glass. The historical and archeological glass collection of the Antwerp Museum aan de Stroom/collective Vleeshuis, Antwerp (Belgium)

Danielle CALUWÉ
Free University of Brussels, Dept. of Archaeology and Art History (SKAR), Belgium
Annemie DE VOS
Vleeshuismuseum/MAS, Antwerp, Belgium

The glass collection of the Antwerp Vleeshuis is the largest and oldest glass collection of Antwerp. This large glass collection forms now an integral part of the 'Museum Aan de Stroom' (MAS), a new Antwerp museum inaugurated in 2011. The MAS museum includes numerous remarkable collections and presents tales of the city, the river and the world. The collection is particularly rich in vessel glass from the Roman period up to 16th to 20th century art glass. It showcases the oldest archaeological finds from the inner city and beyond. It also holds an important collection of stained glass from the medieval period onwards. Furthermore, the historical glass collection includes the glass of several, notorious 20th century glass collectors and reflects the changing visions on applied arts and glass collecting up to nowadays. The overview of this glass collection will be threefold; first, discuss its early collection formation in the late 19th century and subsequent the acquisition of the private collections of Alfred Elsen-Maquinay in 1938 and Paul Osterrieth in 1940. Secondly, a short presentation of the more than 700 glass objects, focusing on the objects of the Renaissance and later periods, and thirdly, present the planned long-term Vleeshuis exhibition and the storage of glass in conversation with the other decorative arts collections of the MAS.

Light and Glass Society - Research and Cooperation on the History of Glass Chandeliers

Dr. Helena KOENIGSMARKOVÁ
Director, UPM Prague, Czech Republic

"LIGHT and GLASS - European Society and Documentation Centre for Chandeliers, Light and Lighting" was founded as a philanthropic, non-profit Society in May 2000 in the small old centre of the Austro-Bohemian chandelier production of Steinschönau (Kamenický Šenov) in Northern Bohemia.

LIGHT and GLASS, in accordance to its statutes, is the platform for research for high quality lighting and chandeliers, a subject that has been greatly neglected to date. This platform is intended to serve museums, palaces, churches, antique dealers, collectors and other interested parties and aid them in networking with each other and share information.

The Triumph of Amphitrite: a story of resurrection through creative partnerships

Reino LIEFKES
Senior Curator in charge of the Ceramics and Glass Collection, V&A Museum, London, UK
Chairman of ICOM Glass

My paper will outline how partnerships, both National and International, enabled the V&A Museum to restore and reconstruct a lost ceramic masterpiece, a porcelain table fountain made at Meissen for an important royal wedding in 1747. For this project we used a combination of cutting edge 3D technology and traditional ceramic making techniques. Conclusions: To summarize, the role of museums preservation in arts and crafts goes beyond documentation, research, conservation and display that is isolated from the local community. Moreover, today, the museum serves as a modern community institution, sharing in the preservation of arts and crafts traditions, weaving a tapestry of modern-day local life and landscape based on the traditions of the past.

Sebastian Herkner - Glasswork. Contemporary Design and traditional craftsmanship: sharing the experience

Dr. Rosita NENNO
Senior Curator, German Leather Museum Offenbach, Germany

Sebastian Herkner (www.sebastianherkner.com) is a traveler in time and space. Very much interested in traditional crafts all around the world, he is working with craftsmen who have accomplished their techniques since centuries. Especially for his designs in glass, whether lights, vessels or furniture, he is melting down his inspirations from industrial architecture, oriental lampions or lustre-glowing ceramics with his pure forms and structures. His decision to cooperate with the best experienced craftsmen brings him to astonishing products where material and elaboration meet into a perfect harmony. His products range between casted glass, mouth blown, colored and silvered glass. Transparency, opaque and shiny surfaces enter into a dialogue with each other or hold steady against polished metals.

The main topics of my presentation are

  1. Herkner's inspirations and
  2. the interaction between contemporary design and traditional craftsmanship

The Museum and the Arts and Crafts Workshops: Interaction and Renewal of Local Tradition in the Local Landscape

Dr. Nirit SHALEV-KHALIFA
Curator manager of the Visual Documentation and Exhibition department, Yad Ben-Zvi institute, Jerusalem; curator of Independence Hall, Eretz Israel museum Tel Aviv, independent curator

The move of crafts into museums can be seen to symbolize their decline in the community and in the local landscape - both in terms of the production process and the presence of the products in the public sphere and the home - and their transformation into artifacts that must be preserved in a display case as remnants of the past. However, the involvement of museums has also engendered the opposite process - ancient traditions are being renewed, rejuvenated, and sometimes even reinvented as a source of inspiration of a modern local design.

Methodology: I would like to demonstrate these processes by presenting two case studies: The Armenian ceramics of Jerusalem and Hebron glass.

Findings: Armenian ceramics is a tradition that originated in Turkey and was brought to Jerusalem after WWI by Armenian refugees under British patronage. It has since developed into a hallmark Jerusalem craft, its products adorning many homes.

Ornamental objects from these pottery workshops became a well-known presence in homes beginning in the 1920s and a focus of shared local identification among members of all faiths and communities. Armenian ceramics were featured in an exhibit in the Eretz Israel Museum, Tel Aviv (Arts & Crafts museum) in 1986 and once again in 2000, as well as an exhibition for Mary Balian (the first and only Armenian women artist) in the Smithsonian in New York (1992) and in Alicante museum in Spain. The work of three generations of artists that until then considered as decorative art or craft only, has been recognized as the monumental local art, unique, and official. Discussion and display has led to its renewed proliferation and the opening of new artists' studios. These have set in motion a fascinating process combining traditional techniques and patterns in the design of modern structures and decorative objects. The rejuvenation of studios and their products have turned the city into an open air museum, in which work, both traditional and modern, takes place right before the eyes of visitors and purchasers.

The unique old tradition of glass-blowing in Hebron renewal at the same time, in the 1920s with the encouragement of the British rulers at the time, particularly C.R. Ashbee, one of the leaders of the Arts & Crafts Movement. Blue Hebron glass was exhibited, beginning in the 1980s, in the Eretz Israel Museum, Tel Aviv as part of an active crafts market display. The market featured a real glass-blowing workshop where a craftsman from Hebron worked for years. However, the attempt to revitalize the craft cut off of its city and community surroundings was unsuccessful. The museum workshop no longer operates and the craft is in decline.

Conclusions: To summarize, the role of museums preservation in arts and crafts goes beyond documentation, research, conservation and display that is isolated from the local community. Moreover, today, the museum serves as a modern community institution, sharing in the preservation of arts and crafts traditions, weaving a tapestry of modern-day local life and landscape based on the traditions of the past.

Gomide's stained glass windows installed at Parque da Água Branca's Entrance Portal

Regina Lara SILVEIRA MELLO
Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo, Brazil and VICARTE_FCT/UNL Lisbon, Portugal
Paulo Eduardo BARBOSA
Gomide's stained glass windows installed at Parque da Água Branca's Entrance Portal

In 1920's Brazil, the city of São Paulo lived a singular moment, marked by the opulence of the coffee economic cycle, added to the cultural effervescence manifest by 1922's Week of Modern Art, which reunited the Brazilian artistic avant-garde of that period. Like the European cities of the post-Industrial Revolution in the XVIII century, urban public parks appeared in São Paulo, such as the White Water Park, which opened in 1929 and aimed to meet the demand of the growing agricultural industry. In this park filled with Norman style buildings, whose image refers to the rural universe, the Entrance Portal's futuristic appearance stands out, completely different from the others.

Designed by the engineer Mário Thomaz Whately, the portal frames a set of stain-themed agriculture and livestock, created by artist Antônio Gomide in partnership with Casa Conrado (Conrado House, trade name of the stained glass workshop Conrado Ltd.). By the time of the portal's full restoration, including its stained glass windows, made by this paper's authors in 1997, documents that support findings and help to historically situate such an interest building were found.

Participants

Helen BIERI THOMSON
Musée National Suisse, Directrice du Château de Prangins

Monica BILFINGER
Bundesamt für Bauten und Logistik, Bern

Sofia BOLLO
University of Zurich

Vicky BOUNTI-KARKA
ret. Hellenic Authority of Arts and Crafts

Faith-Allison CALLENDER
Barbados Museum and Historical Society, Barbados St. Michael

Annie CARLANO
Mint Museum

Ludmilla DEMENTIEVA
State Historical Museum Moscov

Giselle EBERHARD-COTTON
Fondation Toms Pauli

Micael ERNSTELL
Nationalmuseum, Design, Schweden

Golnaz Tayeebeh GOLSABAHI
Departement of Cultural Institute of Bonyad Museums CIBM Tehran, Iran

Andreas GUGLER
Hofmobiliendepot Wien

Gabriele GUIDI
Politecnico di Milano

Valérie GUILLAUME
Centre de Création Industrielle

Christian HOERACK
Musée d'art et d'histoire, Neuchâtel, Switzerland

Julia KÖNIG
Poster Collection at Vienna City Library

Helena KÖNIGSMARKOVÁ
Museum of Decorative Art, Prag

Martina LEHMANNOVÁ
Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague

Kai LOBJAKAS
Estland Museum of Applied Art and Design

Zsuzsanna LOVAY
Museum of Applied Art, Budapest

Shirin MELIKOVA
Azerbaijan Carpet Museum

Joachim MEYER
Davids Samling, The David Collection, Kopenhagen

Barbora MISTRIKOVA
Slovenska Narodna Galeria, Bratislava

Damon MONZAVI
Radio Museum museums Teharan

Meiko NAGASHIMA
Kyoto National Museum

Jan NORRMANN
Nationalmuseum Stockholm

Martina PALL
Schell Collection, Graz

Annamaria RAVAGNAN
Institututi e Luoghi della Cultura e Soprintendenza Beni Librari

Melissa RINNE
Kyoto National Museum, Japan

Alberto ROVETTA
Politecnico di Milano

Edoardo ROVIDA
Politecnico di Milano

Nirit SHALEV-KHALIFA
Independent Curator, Curator Manager of the Visual Documentation and
Exhibition department, Yad Ben-Zvi institute Jerusalem. Curator of
Independence Hall, Eretz Israel Museum

Elena TITOVA
All Russian Museum of Decorative Art, Moscov

Ito YOSHIAKI

Rema ZEYNALOVA
Russia

Images